Self-study guides range in complexity from a single page document to a fully-developed self-paced course with accompanying workbook. Self-study guides are most appropriate for an audience as background study or pre-work outside the classroom experience or online learning environment. The reason for self-study guides is to ensure a common baseline of knowledge for a given audience and optimize formal learning time. Self-study guides can be paper-based or technology driven. In a “flipped classroom” approach, for example, students might view short video lectures at home and devote in-class time to exercises, projects, and discussions.